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Some whistleblowers throughout history

Historical disclosures:


NOTIFY 1773 – 2013

1773 – Benjamin Franklin published letters showing that the governor of Massachusetts misled the House to promote military reconstruction in the New World. The governor was expelled.

1777 – Samuel Shaw and Richard Marven revealed the torture of British prisoners of war. As a result, Congress unanimously passed the first law to protect whistleblowers.

1872 – Julius Chambers, one of America's first grave journalists, infiltrated New York's Bloomingdale mental hospital and wrote articles proving patient abuse.

1906 – Upton Sinclair, author who revealed the conditions of Chicago's slaughterhouses in the novel The Jungle.

1933 – Smedley Butler, retired Major General, revealed in a secret congressional hearing and in his book War Is a Racket "The Business Plot" project – plans to govern Franklin D. Roosevelt.

1969 – Ron Ridenhour, helicopter soldier in Vietnam, wrote a letter to Congress and the Pentagon about torture, sexual abuse, genital mutilation and mass murder of hundreds of civilians.

1971 – Daniel Ellsberg, military analyst, published government documents (Pentagon Papers) which showed that several administrations had lied to Congress about the war in Vietnam. This contributed to the shortening of the war and to Nixon's fall.

1972 – Peter Buxtun revealed that the US Public Health Service was studying the effect of syphilis on 399 African American men who were neither told that they had the disease nor were being treated for it.

1972 – W. Mark Felt, FBI director, known as "Deep Throat," gave reporters information about Nixon's criminal actions (the Watergate scandal), which directly led to Nixon's departure.

1975 - Anders Hellebust revealed irregular cooperation between US and Norwegian intelligence that was deliberately kept hidden from the Prime Minister, and revealed officials who were more loyal to foreign powers than their own government. The Labor Party wanted, supported by most other newspapers, to sue the newspaper Ny Tid, which published the findings. Dahl & Bastiansen have commented in the book How free a country that the press "obviously was more serious about revealing illegalities than committing them".

1977 – Frank Camps, designer at the Ford Motor Company, Ford warned that the design of the Pinto car was dangerous, and documented that the company knew this and had made a calculated risk of saving money.

1983 – Jorgen Johansen, Norwegian journalist, systematically gathered information in public sources and analyzed them to identify irregular US military bases on Norwegian soil. He was charged with espionage, but finally acquitted by the Supreme Court.

1995 – Jeffrey Wigand, Vice President of Research and Development at the tobacco company Brown & Williamson, revealed that the company misled consumers about how addictive and dangerous cigarettes are.

1999 – Frank Casey reported Bernard Madoff and his false promises of a 12 percent return for investors. In 2008, investor losses were estimated at $ 18 billion. Madoff was sentenced to 150 years in prison.

2000 – Marsha Coleman-Adebayo, an analyst at EPA, notified the Racism and Gender Discrimination Organization. The case led to the No-FEAR Act in 2002, which makes authorities more accountable to employees.

2001 – William Binney and Kirk Wiebe (respectively NSA technical director and senior analyst) were fired when they revealed NSA's mismanagement and waste in the failed Trailblazer data collection program.

2001 – Kathryn Bolkovac, human rights investigator in Bosnia, revealed crimes against young girls who were forced into prostitution and used as sex slaves by US military and UN-related international organizations.

2001 – Sherron Watkins revealed the Enron scandal in 2001 by revealing accounting irregularities in the company, and warned that Enron "could implode into a wave of accounting scandals".

2002 - Jesselyn Radach, The Department of Justice Ethics Advisor warned that FBI agents illegally interrogated "American Taliban" John Walker Lindh without his attorney present.

2002 – Kari Breirem, director of the prestigious Norwegian law firm BA-HR, refused to sign an incorrect money transaction in the well-known Tønne case of NOK 1,5 million. BA-HR was fined 50 for the payment, but no one in the management was prosecuted. Breirem was fired.

2002 – Cynthia Cooper WorldCom's internal audit revealed a $ 3,8 billion scam on WorldCom – the largest accounting fraud in US history to date.

2002 – Coleen Rowley, FBI Special Agent, uncovered the agency's tragic late response to reports of suspicious activity prior to the September 11, 2001 attacks. She shared the title of the Year of Times Magazine for 2002 with Sherron Watkins and Cynthia Cooper.

2003 – Katharine Gunn leaked an email about illegal activities from the US and UK in Iraq. NSA leaders asked for British help to spy on UN diplomats. Gun was arrested for "crimes", but the case was closed in 2004.

2004 – David Graham, The Food and Drug Administration's security officer broke with his employer and testified at Senate hearings that Merck's Vioxx medicine killed as many Americans as the Vietnam War.

2004 - Joseph Darby, sergeant, released images of abusing prisoners in Abu Ghraib, causing 11 soldiers to be punished. In Norway, Gunnar Garbo launched a campaign demanding that military leaders be held accountable, not just the footmen.

2005 - Rick Piltz at the US Climate Change Science Program went down when the White House tried to manipulate them into exaggerating the degree of scientific uncertainty about the man-made causes of climate change.

2005 – Thomas Drake at the NSA revealed NSA programs that weaken people's security and protection. Drake used all legal internal channels in vain. He eventually went to the press in

2005, and became the first after Ellsberg to be prosecuted under the US Spy Act. The case against him collapsed in June 2011. Nevertheless, he was forced to wage a devastating legal battle for four years and have his career ruined.

2005 – Bradley Birkenfeld revealed that Swiss UBS Bank urged Americans to evade tax in offshore bank accounts. It brought billions of tax dollars back to the country and helped stop UBS's tax crime. Birkenfeld was sentenced to 40 months in prison.

2006 – James Hansen, climate scientists, announced that NASA staff and the Bush administration put pressure to stop him from talking about the dangers of global warming.

2006 – Gary Aguirre, SEC lawyer, reported the SEC's poor investigation of leading hedge funds. Aguirre was terminated after his attempt to sue John Mack failed. Mack later became CEO of Morgan Stanley.

2006 – Aubrey Blumsohn at Sheffield University reported that data was withheld and manipulated in connection with Procter & Gamble's osteoporosis medicine Actonel.

2006 – Julian Assange, Sara Harrison et alg Kristinn Hrafsson, the leading people behind the alert channel WikiLeaks, were crucial to Chelsea Mannings and Edward Snowden's alert efforts.

2007 – John Kiriakou led the CIA's counterterrorism operations in Pakistan, refused to be trained in waterboarding, and revealed the CIA's torture program as an established practice of the CIA rather than incidental agent abuse.

2008 – Herve Falciani In the Swiss major bank HSBC, French police provided 60 data files that revealed tens of thousands of tax evaders from almost every country in the world. Falciani is wanted in Switzerland, but has been granted amnesty in France. A U.S. Senate hearing found that HSBC was helping terrorist regimes, drug lords and criminals, and fined the bank $ 000 billion. No one in the HSBC management has been punished. Swiss authorities dropped charges against the bank. Falciani was convicted in absentia in 2015 to five years in prison for industrial espionage.

2009 – John Kopchinski, former Pfizer sales rep, warned about and triggered a massive state investigation into drug giant Pfizer's illegal marketing.

2010 – Samy Kamkar data hacker, illegal global mobile surveillance unveiled by all users, regardless of GPS or other selected settings on the phone, whether it was Apple iPhone, Google Android or Microsoft Windows.

2010 – Wilma Subra proved serious health risk for cleanup workers following Gulf Coast pollution following BP's April 2010 Deepwater Horizon accident.

2010 – Chelsea Manning, U.S. intelligence analyst, was arrested for transmitting 91 secret U.S. military reports on the war in Afghanistan and 731 State Department cables to WikiLeaks. Among other things, she revealed an airstrike video in which nine civilians and two Reuters journalists in Baghdad are killed. She was sentenced to maximum security imprisonment for 251 years.

2012 – John Parsons, global fund inspector general, revealed that up to two-thirds of global fund grants may have been lost to corruption. The Board terminated Parson's employment in November 2012.

2012 – Eric Ben-Artzi revealed breaches of Deutsche Bank's securities laws and reported serious errors in reporting on the value of credit derivatives.

2013 – John Crane at the Pentagon Inspector General's Office responsible for securing warnings against abusers, revealed offenses against whistleblowers – especially that Thomas Drake's secret testimony was used illegally against him. Crane was terminated with immediate effect.

More information:

GAP (Government Accountability Project), timeline-us-whistleblowers, Democracy Now , Mark Hertsgaard, Bravehearts: Whistleblowing in the age of Snowden, 2016. G. Glen Greenwald, No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA and the Surveillance State, 2014, The New Yorker, May 30, 2016. “The Bank Robber,” pp. 37–47.

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