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Seducers love majority decisions

Middle Eastern metropolises
Destroyed World [Destroyed Worlds]
About revolutions
Isonomia and the Origins of Philosophy

IDEA HISTORY: Is Greece more of a cultural periphery in the Middle East than the origin of our modern democracy? Aristotle believed that the Phoenicians in Carthage, like the law – isonomia – had a better democracy than Athens – the so-called cradle of democracy.

When the Nazis seized power in the Netherlands during World War II, the anti-fascist history professor Johan Huizinga (1872–1945) was among the most important enemies of the totalitarian occupying power. Even in 1942, Huizinga was critical of the Nazi regime. In July of that year, Hitler's men arrested him for three months, before the 70-year-old was finally released when he was close to death. Huizinga was banned from Leiden University, so he settled in the small village of De Steeg, east of Arnhem. There he completed the same fall a landmark writing, Spoiled world ("Destroyed World", 1945).

The script remained unpublished until after the liberation from the totalitarian forces. And Huizinga himself died as early as February 1945, while the Nazis were ruling.
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Dag Herbjørnsrud
Former editor of MODERN TIMES. Now head of the Center for Global and Comparative History of Ideas.

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