This article is machine translated by Google from Norwegian
author: Paal Frisvold
Eva Joly (75) is the first in Ny Tid's series of European political women's thoughts on Europe's future – Norway included. These include the EU's "Green New Deal" and nationalism.
Norwegian-French Eva Joly just told the assembly in the University's old banquet hall in Oslo: "I am not an optimist for today or tomorrow, but an optimist for the 22. century and what's left of this. "She spoke here as" 2019 Arne Ness professor "(by Center for Development and the Environment, SUM, see factual framework) with the tradition of Arne Næs – the significant eco-philosopher. She mentions him as his role model, one she learned philosophy from long ago. But not least, she emphasizes the importance of thinking long term, into the future. She ends her lecture that we must all take our part, for there is hope.
Joly has now spent ten years in the European Parliament as an elected representative of the Greens (Europe Écologie – Les Verts) in France. New Time has previously interviewed her about the fight against corruption and tax evasion. According to Joly, corruption must be combated if we are to get any way in the environmental case. Corruption prevents weak states from rebuilding and degrading developed countries.
Green New Deal for Europe
Many with the new President of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen, and her new weapon bearers have expectations of changes for EU policy in the future. Or rather, about how Europe can become a better place to be. Von der Leyen's Green New Deal for Europe is an ambitious and pragmatic plan for the transition to zero greenhouse gas emissions. The Green New Deal for Europe must reflect climate change in all EU policies. But if the EU's goal of a climate-neutral Europe is to be achieved by 2050, just over NOK 2000 billion a year will be required to be invested in green technology – according to the European Commission. This amounts to five percent of GDP spent on, among other things, agriculture, infrastructure, industry and creating millions of new jobs – without increasing taxes. (See gndforeurope.com)
"Climate labeling" may have an impact on Norway's gas production through the EEA Agreement.
At the same time, the EU has an economic growth requirement and a limit for national external debt
- 3,5 and 60 percent respectively. When asked, Joly says this is a barrier to green investment: “This is a very bureaucratic technological way of thinking at a time when we need a shift to a new green economy. Investments in green energy – with possible deficits and increased debt – should be deductible from this calculation. "
The European Commission now wants to distinguish between green and black investments and carry out so-called climate labeling. For example, gas production without carbon capture / storage is classified as "dirty" rather than "clean" energy. This may have an impact on Norway's gas production through the EEA Agreement. In addition, a bill is proposed to ban banks from funding fossil technology. In October, the European Investment Bank adopted new guidelines to liquidate all fossil energy investments.
According to Joly, this means “establishing a new tax system. But can't we imagine new rules for using your bike to get your bread? Rules for not flying to Thailand during the Christmas holidays? Or that short flights – where the train only takes 2 – 3 hours more, as between Paris and Geneva – are banned ».
Joly demands that the school take responsibility for informing about what will happen in the future with rising temperatures – with the Gulf Stream, for example. She also calls for respect for science, as doctors use consensus: “The treatment you get for high blood pressure, you agree. I know that some people think science is nonsense and that you just need to eat more vegetarian food. But you have to be quite knowledgeable if you go against science. "
Industry or climate?
The debate about investing in green has its alarmists and skeptics. We ask Joly about her views on the debate: “I don't like people who think everything is over, that we should just wait for the end. These are people who would rather die than go swimming – and want the world to die at the same time. Besides, I have both disdain and disgust for people who don't care about facts, who don't read anything, but just pick things up to skeptically claim that man-made climate change doesn't exist. ”
Right after Joly's lecture in Oslo, SUM staged a session with arguments to protect jobs and industry on the one hand, and nature's primary protection on the other. Nature's rights against social rights. Hundreds of millions of people are known to have emerged from extreme poverty through an environmentally destructive industry. The dilemma between jobs and environmental protection is familiar to any Labor Party:
As the carbonless rises southeast in Europe and further east, a Green New Deal must be about more than our own continent: "China is also a problem, as nearly half of the emissions come from there," Joly says.
"As the carbonless rises southeast in Europe and further east, a Green New Deal must be about more than Europe."
According to Joly, necessary changes require caution: “If you think authoritatively you can shut down, for example, the oil industry, without taking care of those who work there, you can have a revolution. It is not going forward. "She recalls that changes had been made earlier:" The kerosene lamp was replaced with electric bulbs. And with industrialization, a number of professions disappeared. ”
Joly wants to get back to the money: "We should ban billionaires – in dollars. I know this sounds revolutionary, but it should be sufficient. Financial life is a casino. " In dollars we ask, it would have only affected a handful in Norway?
But Joly continues on the importance of property law: “From the Middle Ages people got the right to own property, which led to growth in 500 years. But if we are to survive, this system, now based on finance, must change. This was understood at an early stage by the philosophers Arne Næs and Peter Wessel Zapffe. ”As Joly explains, these two true philosophers did not listen at the time; in Norway they were perceived as unpopular, unfriendly or elitist.
Joly optimistically believes that we know better today and "can use the new technology algorithms for purposes other than sophisticated financial products that even ordinary politicians don't understand". She calls for a common fiscal policy and minister to establish a joint European debt administration.
As private banks are little interested in long-term investments, the New Green Deal for Europe should be based entirely on Europe's public investment banks – but aimed at "small businesses, local communities and massive continent-wide infrastructure projects to make sure everyone has the green services and utilities they need".
The Arne Næs program at SUM
is based on the reputation of Norway's foremost eco-philosopher, Arne Næs, who was both an environmental activist and a supporter of Gandhi's teachings. According to the program, sustainable development must critically reflect on the relationship between ethics, business and politics, otherwise the green growth agenda may end up with technocratic, narrow or market driven solutions. The program brings together researchers, practitioners and international leading thinkers around societal environmental challenges. Eva Joly held the keynote address at the Næs symposium in September as "2019 Arne Næs professor" in addition to guiding SUM researchers and students in Oslo. Her next "Oslo month" at SUM is in April 2020. Joly is a trained lawyer, has practiced as a corruption hunter, has been a judge in France and an adviser to the Norwegian government (2005 – 2009). She has authored a number of books and currently sits on a number of international committees. Joly has received numerous awards for his work, and is an honorary doctorate at the University of Bergen.
How about inspiring changes from below, in the local, we ask Joly. What about the local community, or perhaps more anarchist-inspired environments fencing the local – preferably in solidarity with the global? "The Greens know how important the local community is, and that we need some kind of balance between the local and the global – globalization must not be stopped, but more united with local communities by real people," Joly points out.
We ask – possibly provocatively for many – how to believe in the majority's decisions in political elections such a country is characterized by populism and ignorance?
“I think we need to be able to impose demands on solidarity countries
- especially the Eastern European – which is characterized by strong populism. These do not want to participate. Are they really afraid of those who suffer from hunger, even if there are only a few thousand refugees? It is a terrible political position to take. Like Viktor Orban's message that Hungary is just for Hungarians? ”
"This is going backwards into the future."
What about those who choose isolationism, either nationally or privately? “Of course, you can choose to only take care of you and yours. I know our admonitions are not reaching them. A lot of politics gets too abstract. People act on the basis of emotion; we must make people feel to realize what you mean. I believe that the psychological explanation for nationalism is an uncertainty that arises when much is changing. You yearn back, want to live near the old church in the small village, surrounded by the friends you went to school with. "
And what about Brexit, we ask: “Are you from the UK, you can also dream of the time when Queen Victoria ruled the seas, a nationalist dream of a glorious past. But this is going backwards into the future. It is not working. It is a way to hide from the problems that we have to solve together. The fact that both individuals and nations are withdrawing from the community and reality shows precisely the limitations of democracy. "
What about the Commission's statement to protect the "European way of life" – what is Joly's comment on that? "If one perceives this as Europe being threatened by a Muslim majority, it is a terrible way of thinking. In France alone, we have 12 million indigenous Muslims. But they are mostly Muslims as others are Catholics – mostly as a cultural thing or lifestyle, and not necessarily as believers. "
Will the majority of a national democracy, with populism, possibly prevent the changes von der Leyen and those Joly wishes for Europe? Joly himself said in Oslo that "liberal democracy is not enough". What did she mean by that? "Society is terribly complex. It is true that it is not possible for anyone to understand. A democratic idea that anyone, and even young 18-year-olds, should be able to rule is a lie. It's a dangerous thought. "
The international community
What about Europe as a community, we ask – for example, Norway is already a member of NATO: "I think Europe should have its own defense. We have a lot to gain by coordinating forces and the military industry. With Trump, we can't trust Americans – he just can't decide whether to intervene if something happens. It would have been sad if we were not part of Europe's defense, huh? "
“Of course, you can choose to just take care of you and yours. I know that our admonitions do not reach those who choose isolationism unsolderly. "
We mention populist Poland, Hungary, Romania, the United Kingdom and the United States: “I think people are seduced and they just listen to what they want to hear. We have terrible examples of that. For me, it's amazing that a man like Donald Trump has managed to get elected in the United States. The scandal is not that he is who he is, but that he got so many voters. ”
What about the environmental movements who think the authorities have broken the social contract? "I hope people will someday realize that they are smart. I am happy with what I am currently observing in environmental movements. Yes, the youth are now going out massively and declaring that they no longer want this form of society. "
Miss Norway in the EU
Eva Joly left Norway as an 20 year-old, but has both Norwegian and French passports. She still has a lot to tell Norway:
“Their place is in Europe. We miss you, I really appreciated having Norway join the EU, with all the knowledge Norwegians have. ”
Joly explains that both Sweden, Denmark and Finland are important in the EU; they are listened to. By contrast, Norway via the EEA is part of the EU: “Good to apply all the rules, so directives and regulations are almost implemented faster than in other countries. And Norway pays as much or more than if you were inside. I do not understand why Norway will not participate and act on behalf of the world.
Norway is in many ways young, and is characterized by the damage of World War II. We in Norway have not realized how important it is to be friends with the Germans. Norway has not worked on the European idea – maybe it is time to clear the closet? But Norwegians have a good sense of community, local active community. Norway may have one of the best functioning democracies, but democracy itself has many limitations and is vulnerable to the entry of populism. ”
For example, the newspaper Klassekampen has long given the impression of being a staunch defender of Norwegian national sovereignty and what "the people" mean. "French" Joly is easily forgotten as follows: "There are so many challenges that cannot be solved at the national level. You can't fix the climate change yourself. You cannot deal with epidemics, your own defense, or the refugee crisis on your own. Joining the EU is for Norway's own safety and future. There will come a day when the oil can no longer be exploited and still be rich. ”
Joly emphasizes the need for neighbors: “The EU was created as a peace project, and although it has had its problems, it still is. Nowhere else in the world do we have values like we have in Europe, or rules that protect citizens like us. ”
So how are Norway from Brussels and Strasbourg considered? “Today, Norwegians are seen as rich and selfish. You have a good development policy. But you should be politically active in Europe, rather than waiting for someone to tell you what's going on at our meetings. "
Joly is no longer a member of the European Parliament, but still thinks long term as Arne Næs, and is quite active at an old age: “When my parliamentary term was out, I decided to spend some of the few years I have left try to convince people that the future lies in the EU. ”
The series of EU or European women is supported by Fritt ord,
and continues for the next few months.