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Orientering

The periphery is being urbanised

The attachment: The articles in this appendix of ORIENTERING shows which problems are linked to cities and poverty, pandemic, war, conflict, energy, food, flight, floods and fear.

Urban warfare and lack of social stability

Konflikt: The fact that unemployed urban youth go into drug dealing, street gangs, militias and sectarian political organizations is not surprising. Yet something else may be more important than crime prevention and counter-terrorism.

Planetary urbanization

globalization: Wilderness disappears; continents become more closely linked; the distinction between town and country becomes more blurred; and urban inequality is increasing.

The planet is urbanized

City and country: The number of countries with more than 90 percent of the population in urban areas has doubled from 16 to 32 since 1975. Today, urbanization is no longer limited to cities.

Is there a future for poor people in the city?

Urbanization: Moving from the countryside to the city has lifted many people out of poverty, particularly in developing countries. The city provides better access to work, services and freedom from inhibiting social norms. At the same time, life for the city's poor can be difficult.

Who exactly is the transformation of Nikel being carried out for?

Russia: Historically, Nikel is a "monotown" – a city created and run by a city-forming industrial company with one sole purpose: to exploit industrial labour.

Between housing and home

Trondheim: Transmigrants find themselves in a vulnerable work situation. The housing options available to transmigrants include dormitories, private homes converted into collectives, tents, vans and most popularly: barracks.

The consequences of urbanization for aid practice

Poverty: Over a billion people, 24 percent of the world's urban population, are today considered slum dwellers. And most refugees do not end up in overcrowded camps in Europe, but as displaced migrants in medium-sized and small cities in Asia and Africa. Aid today has a reluctance to get involved in urban areas and urbanization issues.

Are climate and poverty reduction the main goals of Norwegian aid?

Poverty: Norwegian Development Cooperation's weak urban efforts over 60 years – an average of five percent of the annual aid budget – is difficult to understand. Because it is in the cities that the "billion at the bottom" live. Many are calling for measures in areas such as forests and climate, plastic and marine litter, transport, energy, food safety and regional planning.

Security and violence in Rocinha – a favela in Rio de Janeiro

Brazil: Security in Rio Janeiro is about much more than police operations. It is about the people who live there, outsiders and how they live in a society where they are denied public services.

Sustainability is no longer sustainable

Oslo: A study of the conservation potential of Oslo's non-protected buildings shows that 13 million tonnes of CO2 is tied up in Oslo's non-protected buildings. What about pragmatic protection, where, for example, a farm owner must be able to prove that the demolition of such existing buildings is the right decision – also from a climate perspective?

Five urbanists – urban developers

Planning: MODERN TIMES has asked five urbanists – all known to Norwegian urban developers – about some of the main themes in this supplement: global urbanization and the feminization of poverty, driving forces and counter-forces, new technology, and organization in the fight for a safer and more secure society.